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CITE

    18 USC Sec. 1516                                            01/05/2009

EXPCITE

    TITLE 18 - CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
    PART I - CRIMES
    CHAPTER 73 - OBSTRUCTION OF JUSTICE

HEAD

    Sec. 1516. Obstruction of Federal audit

STATUTE

      (a) Whoever, with intent to deceive or defraud the United States,
    endeavors to influence, obstruct, or impede a Federal auditor in
    the performance of official duties relating to a person, entity, or
    program receiving in excess of $100,000, directly or indirectly,
    from the United States in any 1 year period under a contract or
    subcontract, grant, or cooperative agreement, or relating to any
    property that is security for a mortgage note that is insured,
    guaranteed, acquired, or held by the Secretary of Housing and Urban
    Development pursuant to any Act administered by the Secretary, or
    relating to any property that is security for a loan that is made
    or guaranteed under title V of the Housing Act of 1949, shall be
    fined under this title, or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or
    both.
      (b) For purposes of this section -
        (1) the term "Federal auditor" means any person employed on a
      full- or part-time or contractual basis to perform an audit or a
      quality assurance inspection for or on behalf of the United
      States; and
        (2) the term "in any 1 year period" has the meaning given to
      the term "in any one-year period" in section 666.

SOURCE

    (Added Pub. L. 100-690, title VII, Sec. 7078(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102
    Stat. 4406; amended Pub. L. 103-322, title XXXII, Sec. 320609,
    Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2120; Pub. L. 104-294, title VI, Sec.
    604(b)(43), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3509; Pub. L. 105-65, title V,
    Sec. 564, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1420; Pub. L. 106-569, title
    VII, Sec. 709(b), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 3018; Pub. L. 107-273,
    div. A, title II, Sec. 205(c), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1778.)

REFERENCES IN TEXT

      The Housing Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (a), is act July
    15, 1949, ch. 338, 63 Stat. 413, as amended. Title V of the Act is
    classified generally to subchapter III (Sec. 1471 et seq.) of
    chapter 8A of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete
    classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set
    out under section 1441 of Title 42 and Tables.

AMENDMENTS

      2002 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107-273 inserted ", entity, or
    program" after "person" and "grant, or cooperative agreement,"
    after "subcontract,".
      2000 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106-569 inserted "or relating to any
    property that is security for a loan that is made or guaranteed
    under title V of the Housing Act of 1949," before "shall be fined
    under this title".
      1997 - Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105-65 inserted "or relating to any
    property that is security for a mortgage note that is insured,
    guaranteed, acquired, or held by the Secretary of Housing and Urban
    Development pursuant to any Act administered by the Secretary,"
    after "under a contract or subcontract,".
      1996 - Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104-294 inserted "and" after
    semicolon at end.
      1994 - Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103-322 substituted "section - " for
    "section", inserted "(1)" before "the term", substituted semicolon
    for the period at end, and added par. (2).
                     EFFECTIVE DATE OF 1996 AMENDMENT
      Amendment by Pub. L. 104-294 effective Sept. 13, 1994, see
    section 604(d) of Pub. L. 104-294, set out as a note under section
    13 of this title.
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